References 

Much of these data are from the International Tree-Ring Databank. link


Archambault, S, and Y. Bergeron, 1992. Discovery of a living 900 year-old northern white cedar, Thuja occidentalis, in northwestern Quebec. Canadian Field-Naturalist 106(2): 192-195.

Archambault, S., 1989. Les cedres blancs (Thuja occidentalis L.) a grande longevite du lac Duparquet, Abitibi: une etude dendroclimatique et ecologique. M.Sc. Thesis. Université du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal. 119 pages.

Butler, S. 2006. Disturbance History and Stand Dynamics of The Coweeta Basin, Western North Carolina. Master of Science Thesis. The University of Maine, Orono, Maine. 127 pp.

Cook, E., and J. Cole. 1991. On predicting the response of forests in eastern North America to future climatic change. Climatic Change 19:271-282

Dayton, P.K. 2003. The importance of the natural sciences to conservation. American Naturalist 162: 1-13.

Druckenbrod, D. L., H. H. Shugart, and I. Davies. 2005. Spatial pattern and process in forest stands within the Virginia piedmont. Journal of Vegetation Science 16:37-48.

Druckenbrod, D. L., and H. H. Shugart. 2004. Forest history of James Madison's Montpelier Plantation. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 131:204-219.

Girardin, M.P., J.C. Tardif, M.D. Flannigan, and Y. Bergeron. 2006. Synoptic scale atmospheric circulation and summer drought variability of the past three centuries, boreal Canada. Journal of Climate 10: 1922-1947.

Larson, D.W., and P.E. Kelly. 1991. The extent of old-growth Thuja occidentalis on cliffs of the Niagara Escarpment. Canadian Journal of Botany 69:1628-1636.

Larson, B.M., J.L. Riley, E.A. Snell and H.G. Godschalk. 1999. The Woodland Heritage of Southern Ontario: A Study of Ecological Change, Distribution and Significance. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, Ontario. 262 pp.

Loehle, C. 1988. Tree life history strategies: the role of defenses. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18: 209-222.

Loehle, C. 2000. Strategy space and the disturbance spectrum: a life-history model for tree species coexistence. The American Naturalist 156(1): 14-33.

Orwig, D.A., C.V. Cogbill, D.R. Foster, and J.F. O'Keefe. 2001. Variations in old-growth structure and definitions: Development and dynamics of forests on Wachusett Mountain, Massachusetts. Ecological Applications 11:437-452.

Pederson, N. 2005. Climatic Sensitivity and Growth of Southern Temperate Trees in the Eastern US: Implications for the Carbon Cycle. Ph.D. Dissertation. Columbia University, New York, New York. 186 pp.

Pederson, N., R.H. Jones, and R.R. Sharitz. 1997. Age structure of old-growth loblolly pine stands in a floodplain forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124(2): 111-123.

Pederson, N., A.W. D'Amato and D.A. Orwig. 2007. Central hardwood natural history from dendrochronology: maximum ages of rarely studied species. Proceedings of the 15th Central Hardwood Conference. February, 2006. Knoxville, TN.

Pederson, N., E.R. Cook, G.C. Jacoby, D.M. Peteet, and K.L. Griffin. 2004. The influence of winter temperatures on the annual radial growth of six northern-range-margin tree species. Dendrochronologia 22: 7-29.

Rentch, J.S., M.A. Fajvan, and R.R. Hicks, Jr. 2003a. Oak establishment and canopy accession strategies in five old-growth stands in the central hardwood region. Forest Ecology and Management 184: 286-297.

Rentch, J.S., M.A. Fajvan, and R.R. Hicks, Jr. 2003b. Spatial and temporal disturbance characteristics of oak-dominated old-growth stands in the central hardwood region. Forest Science 49: 778-789.

Schmidly, D.J. 2005. What it means to be a naturalist and the future of natural history at American universities. Journal of Mammalogy 86(3): 449-456.

Schulman, E. 1954. Longevity under adversity in conifers. Science 119: 396-399.

Speer, J.H. 2001. Oak mast history from dendrochronology: A new technique demonstrated in the southern Appalachian region. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 241 pp.

Sperduto, D.D., W.F. Nichols, K.F. Crowley and D.A. Bechtel. 2000. Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh) in New Hampshire. Report submitted to the US EPA by the New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory - DRED Division of Forests & Lands (Concord, NH) and The Nature Conservancy. 80 pp. PDF

St. George, S., and Nielsen, E. 2003. Palaeoflood records for the Red River, Manitoba, Canada derived from anatomical tree-ring signatures. The Holocene 13: 547-555.

Stahle, D.W., M.K. Cleaveland, and J.G. Hehr. 1988. North Carolina climate changes reconstructed from tree rings: A.D. 372 to 1985. Science 240: 1517-1519.

Tardif, J., and Y. Bergeron, 1999. Population dynamics of Fraxinus nigra in response to flood-level variations, in northwestern Quebec. Ecological Monographs. 69(1): 107-125.


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