BIO 342
Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
Lecture Exam 5 (Circulatory & Urogenital Systems)
Review Questions

For exam, you will not be responsible for questions in blue font.


Lecture

What are the main components of the circulatory system & what is(are) the general functions of each? What are the main structures of the fish heart & what is the pathway of blood through these areas? What is the role of the sinus venosus? How is the sinus venosus filled with blood? What is the role of the atrium, atrioventricular valve, ventricle, conus arteriosus, semilunar (conal) valves? Which group(s) have a bulbus arteriosus? What is the difference between the conus arteriosus & the bulbus arteriosus? How have the following areas of the lungfish & amphibian heart been modified: atrium, ventricles, conus arteriosus? What are ventricular trabeculae, which groups have them, & what is their function? What is the spiral valve, which groups have it, & what is its function? Do all amniote hearts have a sinus venosus? If not, which groups have a sinus venosus & which do not? In which amniotes do you find a complete interventricular septum? In the basic vertebrate pattern, where are the ventral & dorsal aortas located & how many aortic arches are present? What is the pathway of blood through the ventral & dorsal aortas & the aortic arches? What are afferent branchial arteries, efferent branchial arteries? How do the arotic arches of cartilaginous fish differ from those of teleosts? What modifications of the aortic arches are found in lungfish? What are the 3rd aortic arches of tetrapods called? Which aortic arches are present in terrestrial urodeles, aquatic urodeles? Which aortic arches are present in larval anurans? Which arches supply larval gills? What changes occur in the aortic arches of anurans during metamorphosis? Which arches carry oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood? What is the role of the ventricular trabeculae in keeping the oxygenated & deoxygenated blood separate? When the amphibian ventricle contracts, which blood is pumped out first: oxygenated or deoxygenated? Why? How does the spiral valve help keep the oxygenated & deoxygenated blood separate?
 Which aortic arches are present in adult reptiles? Which arches emerge from the left ventricle of reptiles, the right ventricle? What is the cavum venosum & what is its function? What is the cavum pulmonale & what is its function? Which arches carry oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood? Which reptiles have a complete interventricular septum? Which reptiles have a foramen of Panizza? Where is the foramen of Panizza located & what is its function? When a crocodilian is breathing, which arches carry oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood? How does the left aortic arch carry oxygenated blood even though it emerges from the right ventricle? When a crocodilian is under water, how is blood flow through the arches altered? How does this change occur? What is the advantage of this change in blood flow? How is oxygenated & deoxygenated blood kept separate in birds & mammals? Which arch emerges from the left ventricle of birds & mammals? Which arch emerges from the right ventricle of birds & mammals?

In the venous system of sharks, what is the role of the: common cardinals, anterior cardinals, posterior cardinals, renal portals, lateral abdominals, brachials, subclavians, iliacs, hepatic portal, hepatic vein? What is the fate of the postcardinals in urodeles, anurans, reptiles, birds, mammals? What is the azygos vein of mammals? In tetrapods, what are the common cardinals & anterior cardinals called? In humans, what is the precava better known as? How does the postcava of tetrapods develop? What is the postcava called in humans? How does the presence of the postcava alter the flow of blood from the hind limbs & kidneys back to the heart? Tetrapod embryos have lateral veins that appear to be homologous to the lateral abdominals of sharks, what is the fate of the "abdominals" in amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals? In amphibians, what does the ventral abdominal vein drain & where does it terminate? What do the lateral abdominals of reptiles drain & where do they terminate? How does the renal portal system of crocodilians & birds differ from that of amphibians & fish? What is the fate of the renal portal system in mammals? Which vertebrate groups have a hepatic portal system & what does this system drain? Which vertebrate groups have pulmonary veins & what do these veins drain?

How does the circulatory system of a mammalian fetus differ from that of adults? At birth, what is the fate of the ductus arteriosus, foramen ovale, umbilical vein, ductus venosus?

Which vertebrate groups have a lymphatic system? What is the function of lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymph hearts? Which groups have lymph hearts?

What is the glomerulus? What is a renal corpuscle? What are kidney tubules & what is their function? What is Bowman's capsule? What is the function of the longitudinal ducts? What is the archinephros? What is the pronephros, pronephric duct? What is the fate of the pronephros? What is the mesonephros, mesonephric duct? In which vertebrate groups is the mesonephros the functional adult kidney? What is the opisthonephros? In which vertebrate groups is the mesonephros an embryonic kidney? What is the sexual kidney & in which groups is it found? What is the epididymis & in which groups is it found? What is the metanephros & in which groups is it found? What is the ureter? What is the loop of Henle & in which groups is it found? What is the renal cortex, medulla, pelvis? What artery supplies the amniote kidney? Which vertebrate groups have urinary bladders? What are tubal bladders & which vertebrates have such bladders? How do urinary bladders develop in tetrapods? Which vertebrates have accessory bladders & what is their probable function? What is the value of the tetrapod urinary bladder?

Characterize the ovaries of teleosts, cartilaginous fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, monotremes, mammals. Why are testes usually smaller than ovaries (except in mammals)? What determines whether embryonic gonads become testes or ovaries? In which mammals do the testes descend permanently into scrotal sacs? In which mammals may testes be lowered into scrotal sacs & subsequently retracted? What is the inguinal canal? In which mammals do testes remain permanently in the abdomen? What is the significance of scrotal sacs? How is sperm transmitted from the testes in fishes & amphibians, sharks, teleosts, amniotes? What is the function of male intromittent organs? Which vertebrate groups have intromittent organs? Which group of vertebrates have claspers & what is their function? Which amniotes have an unpaired erectile penis? What is the corpus spongiosum & corpus cavernosa & what is their function? Characterize the female genital ducts of cartilaginous fish, lungfish, teleosts. What is the ostium (or ostia)? Characterize the female genital ducts of amphibians, reptiles, birds, monotremes. In birds, what is the function of the magnum, uterus, vagina? Characterize the female genital ducts of placental mammals. What is a duplex uterus & which mammals have such a uterus? What is a bipartite uterus, bicornuate uterus? What is a simplex uterus & which mammals have such a uterus? What is the cervix? How does the vagina form & what is its function?


Text - Kardong, 2nd edition

Chapter 12 - The Circulatory System

    What is plasma (p.423)? What are formed elements (p.423)? What are the 3 formed elements & what are their general functions (p.423)? What is hemoglobin (p.423)? What are the 3 principal types of blood vessels & what does each do (p.423)? What are arterioles, venules (p.423-424)? What's the difference between 'single circulation' & 'double circulation' & which groups have each type of circulation (p.427)? Know the basic vertebrate circulatory pattern (as illustrated in a shark) (Figure 12.11; p.431) & specifically know the 'pathway' of flow and 'function' of vessels (that is, what does the artery supply) beginning with the ventral aorta (and including the following vessels: external carotids, aortic arches, dorsal aorta, aorta, caudal artery, subclavian arteries, ilac arteries, genital arteries, renal arteries, celiac, anterior mesenteric, & posterior mesenteric (p.430-431). What is a portal system (p.431)? What are the two major portal systems of the venous circulation in vertebrates & what is the function of each (p.431)?
    What is the number of aortic arches usually taken as the basic embryonic pattern (p.432)? What is the afferent artery, efferent artery (p.432)? Know the 'anatomy' of aortic arches in various vertebrate groups as described in Figures 12.14 (p.433) and 12.17 (p.436) & in the text (p.432-437). ***The material concerning Systemic Veins will be covered in lecture, feel free to read the material on pages 437-444 as a supplement to lecture material.***
    Phylogenetically, how did the heart probably begin (p.444)? What are the 4 chambers of the fish heart & what is the pathway of blood through those chambers (p.444)? Which groups have a conus arteriosus, bulbus arteriosus (p.444)? What is(are) the difference(s) between the conus arteriosus and bulbus arteriosus (p.444)? What are trabeculae (p.444-445)? Be able to describe how blood flows through the fish heart (p.447-448). How is the lungfish heart modified from that of other bony fishes (p.448)? In amphibians with functional lungs, what does the heart include (p.449; Figure 12.30, p.450)? How are amphibians unique among air-breathing vertebrates (p.449)? How are the two different streams of blood returning from the systemic and pulmonary circuits of amphibians kept mostly separate (p.450-451)?
    What are the 3 interconnected compartments of the chelonian/squamate heart & what is the role of each (p.451)? Be able to describe the pattern of blood flow through the hearts of Chelonia and squamates (p.452; Figures 12.33 & 12.34). How is the crocodilian heart different from that of other reptiles (p.452)? Be able to describe the pattern of blood flow through the crocodilian heart, both when a crocodilian is breathing air & diving (p.459; Figure 12.37, p.455).
    How are bird & mammal hearts similar (p.459)? What are 3 major physiological adjustments that take place with the circulatory system when a tetrapod dives (p.461)?
 

Chapter 14 - The Urogenital System

    What is the ureter, urethra (p.512)? What is the uriniferous tubule & what are its two parts (p.512)? What does the nephron form (p.512)? What is a renal corpuscle (p.512)? What is the pronephros, mesonephros, opisthonephros, metanephros (p.514-515; Figure 14.4, p.514)? What is the fate of the pronephros in teleosts (p.517)? What is the functional kidney in most adult teleosts & amphibians (p.517)? What is the predominant embryonic kidney in amniotes & what is the fate of that embryonic kidney (p.517-518)? What is a loop of Henle (p.518)? Which groups have such loops (p.518)? What are the 3 routes of eliminating ammonia in vertebrates & which groups use each route (p.520-521)? Know the material in Box Essay 14.1 - Mammals in Deserts, Frogs in the Sea (p.521). Know the material in Box Essay 14.2 - Between Fresh and Salt Water (p.527).
    What does the reproductive system include (p.529)? What are ova (p.529)? What is ovulation (p.529)? What occurs in seminiferous tubules (p.529)? What is the vas, or ductus, deferens (p.529)? What is seminal fluid, or semen (p.529-530)? Know the material in Figure 14.21 (p.532).
    What does the ovary produce (p.532)? What is oogenesis (p.532)? Which vertebrates have paired ovaries, single ovaries (p.534)? How do eggs reach the cloaca in cyclostomes (p.534)? What are the 4 regions of the elasmobranch oviduct & what is the function of each (p.534; Figure 14.24a, p.535)? How are the ovarian ducts of many teleosts derived (p.534)? What is the structure of amphibian ovaries (p.534)? After ovulation, what moves the ovum (egg) into the oviduct (p.536)? If fertilization is internal, where do the ovum & sperm meet (p.536)? If fertilization is external, what drives the ovum to the outside (p.536)? What is added to the fertilized ovum as it moves along the oviduct in birds and egg-laying reptiles (p.537)? What is the uterus & what is its function (p.537)? Which groups have a vagina (p.537)?
    What are the two functions of testes (p.537-538)? How are sperm released in cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, bony fishes, amphibians (p.539-541)? How are sperm transported in male amniotes (p.541)? Where to testes reside in most vertebrate males (p.541)? What is a scrotum, inguinal canal (p.541)? In which vertebrate group do the testes of some males descend into the scrotum (p.541)? What is the reason why testes descend into the scrotum in some mammals (p.541)? Where does fertilization occur in most water-dwelling vertebrates (p.541)? In what instances is fertilization internal (p.541)? What does copulation entail in many vertebrates (p.541)? What are intromittent organs (p.541)? Which groups have claspers & how are claspers used to transfer sperm (p.541)? What is a gonopodium (p.541)? Which groups have a single penis (p.542)? What is hemotumescence (p.542)? Which groups have hemipenes & how are hemipenes used to transfer sperm (p.543)? What is a baculum & which groups have such a structure (p.544)? What is the cloaca (p.547)? What are the 3 compartments of the cloaca & what is the function of each (p.547-549)? What are the advantages of storing urine in a urinary bladder (p.551)? How does the urinary bladder arise in tetrapods (p.552)? Which tetrapods have urinary bladders & which do not (p.552)?
 
 

Text - Kardong, 3rd edition

Chapter 12 - The Circulatory System

    What is plasma (p.439)? What are formed elements (p.439)? What are the 3 formed elements & what are their general functions (p.439)? What is hemoglobin (p.439)? What are the 3 principal types of blood vessels & what does each do (p.439)? What are arterioles, venules (p.440)? What's the difference between 'single circulation' & 'double circulation' & which groups have each type of circulation (p.442-443)? Know the basic vertebrate circulatory pattern (as illustrated in a shark) (Figure 12.11; p.447) & specifically know the 'pathway' of flow and 'function' of vessels (that is, what does the artery supply) beginning with the ventral aorta (and including the following vessels: external carotids, aortic arches, dorsal aorta, aorta, caudal artery, subclavian arteries, ilac arteries, genital arteries, renal arteries, celiac, anterior mesenteric, & posterior mesenteric (p.444-447). What is a portal system (p.447)? What are the two major portal systems of the venous circulation in vertebrates & what is the function of each (p.447)?
    What is the number of aortic arches usually taken as the basic embryonic pattern (p.448)? What is the afferent artery, efferent artery (p.448)? Know the 'anatomy' of aortic arches in various vertebrate groups as described in Figures 12.14 (p.449) and 12.17 (p.452) & in the text (p.449-453). ***The material concerning Systemic Veins will be covered in lecture, feel free to read the material on pages 453-459 as a supplement to lecture material.***
    Phylogenetically, how did the heart probably begin (p.460)? What are the 4 chambers of the fish heart & what is the pathway of blood through those chambers (p.460)? Which groups have a conus arteriosus, bulbus arteriosus (p.460)? What is(are) the difference(s) between the conus arteriosus and bulbus arteriosus (p.460)? What are trabeculae (p.460)? Be able to describe how blood flows through the fish heart (p.463-464). How is the lungfish heart modified from that of other bony fishes (p.464)? In amphibians with functional lungs, what does the heart include (p.465; Figure 12.30, p.466)? How are amphibians unique among air-breathing vertebrates (p.465)? How are the two different streams of blood returning from the systemic and pulmonary circuits of amphibians kept mostly separate (p.465-466)?
    What are the 3 interconnected compartments of the chelonian/squamate heart & what is the role of each (p.467)? Be able to describe the pattern of blood flow through the hearts of Chelonia and squamates (p.467-468; Figures 12.33 & 12.34). How is the crocodilian heart different from that of other reptiles (p.468)? Be able to describe the pattern of blood flow through the crocodilian heart, both when a crocodilian is breathing air & diving (p.475; Figure 12.37, p.471).
    How are bird & mammal hearts similar (p.475)? What are 3 major physiological adjustments that take place with the circulatory system when a tetrapod dives (p.477)?
 

Chapter 14 - The Urogenital System

    What is the ureter, urethra (p.530)? What is the uriniferous tubule & what are its two parts (p.530)? What does the nephron form (p.530)? What is a renal corpuscle (p.531)? What is the pronephros, mesonephros, opisthonephros, metanephros (p.532; Figure 14.4, p.533)? What is the fate of the pronephros in teleosts (p.535)? What is the functional kidney in most adult teleosts & amphibians (p.535-536)? What is the predominant embryonic kidney in amniotes & what is the fate of that embryonic kidney (p.536)? What is a loop of Henle (p.536)? Which groups have such loops (p.536)? What are the 3 routes of eliminating ammonia in vertebrates & which groups use each route (p.537-539)? Know the material in Box Essay 14.1 - Mammals in Deserts, Frogs in the Sea (p.539). Know the material in Box Essay 14.2 - Between Fresh and Salt Water (p.542).
    What does the reproductive system include (p.547)? What are ova (p.547)? What is ovulation (p.547)? What occurs in seminiferous tubules (p.547)? What is the vas, or ductus, deferens (p.547)? What is seminal fluid, or semen (p.547)? Know the material in Figure 14.21 (p.550).
    What does the ovary produce (p.551)? What is oogenesis (p.551)? Which vertebrates have paired ovaries, single ovaries (p.551)? How do eggs reach the cloaca in cyclostomes (p.552)? What are the 4 regions of the elasmobranch oviduct & what is the function of each (p.552-553; Figure 14.24a)? How are the ovarian ducts of many teleosts derived (p.553)? What is the structure of amphibian ovaries (p.553)? After ovulation, what moves the ovum (egg) into the oviduct (p.553)? If fertilization is internal, where do the ovum & sperm meet (p.553)? If fertilization is external, what drives the ovum to the outside (p.553)? What is added to the fertilized ovum as it moves along the oviduct in birds and egg-laying reptiles (p.554)? What is the uterus & what is its function (p.554-556)? Which groups have a vagina (p.556)?
    What are the two functions of testes (p.556)? How are sperm released in cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, bony fishes, amphibians (p.557)? How are sperm transported in male amniotes (p.559)? Where to testes reside in most vertebrate males (p.559)? What is a scrotum, inguinal canal (p.559)? In which vertebrate group do the testes of some males descend into the scrotum (p.559)? What is the reason why testes descend into the scrotum in some mammals (p.559-560)? Where does fertilization occur in most water-dwelling vertebrates (p.560)? In what instances is fertilization internal (p.560)? What does copulation entail in many vertebrates (p.560)? What are intromittent organs (p.560)? Which groups have claspers & how are claspers used to transfer sperm (p.560)? What is a gonopodium (p.560)? Which groups have a single penis (p.562)? What is hemotumescence (p.562)? Which groups have hemipenes & how are hemipenes used to transfer sperm (p.563)? What is a baculum & which groups have such a structure (p.563)? What is the cloaca (p.563)? What are the 3 compartments of the cloaca & what is the function of each (p.566)? What are the advantages of storing urine in a urinary bladder (p.569)? How does the urinary bladder arise in tetrapods (p.569)? Which tetrapods have urinary bladders & which do not (p.569)?


Back to BIO 342 Syllabus