BIO 554/754
Ornithology

Avian Skeleton



Know the following bones/structures:
 
Skull
  orbit 
  frontal 
  parietal 
  occipital 
  foramen magnum 
  occipital condyle 
  mandibles 
  quadrate 
  hyoid apparatus 

Vertebral column 
 cervical vertebrae
         atlas
         axis
 thoracic vertebrae
 synsacrum
   thoracic vertebrae
   lumbar vertebrae
   sacral vertebrae
 caudal vertebrae
       pygostyle

Ribs
   vertebral section
   sternal section
   uncinate process

Sternum
   keel

Pectoral Girdle, Arm, and Hand
  foramen triosseum (or trioseal canal)
  glenoid cavity
  scapula
  coracoid
  furcula
  humerus
  radius
  ulna
  carpal bones
  carpometacarpus
  digits
       phalanges
       thumb (pollex)

Pelvic Girdle, Leg, & Foot
    pelvis
       ilium
       ischium
       pubis
       acetabular fossa
    femur
    patella
    tibiotarsus
    fibula
    tarsometatarsus
    digits
        hallux
 



Atlas (A) and axis (B) of a Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo). A: 1 - vertebral arch, 2 - glenoidal cavity for occipital condyle of skull,
3 - ventral process, 4 - transverse process, and 5 - lateral vertebral notch. B: 1 - dens, 2 - articular facet for atlas, 3 - vertebral foramen,
4 - transverse process, 5 - spinous process, 6 - postzygapophysis, 7 - vertebral canal (From: Bitoiu et al. 2011).


The 5th cervical vertebra of a gull (Larus spp.) (Tambussi et al. 2012).


 


 


Literature cited

Bitoiu, C., C. Belu, G. Predoi, B. Georgescu, I. Dumitrescu, and D. Moisa. 2011. Aspects regarding the morphology of trunk skeleton from the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo). Bulletin UASVM, Veterinary Medicine 68: 77-82.

Tambussi, C. P., R. de Mendoza, F. J. Degrange, and M. B. Picasso. 2012. Flexibility along the neck of the Neogene terror bird Andalgalornis steulleti (Aves Phorusrhacidae). PLoS ONE 7: e37701.


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